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基坑围护结构施工技术
浏览: 发布日期:2018-10-31
基坑围护结构施工技术 
  1、测量定位 
  当土方开挖沟槽(kāi wā gōu cáo )后应测量标高并在围护桩上拉线做记号,钻机就位时应准确。底座应垫平,钻杆的倾斜角度应用罗盘校核,角度偏差不大于3°,高差不超过5cm。钻孔前按施工图放线确定位置,做上标记;钻孔定位误差小于50mm,孔斜误差小于3°,桩径偏差不超过2cm,并严格按照设计桩长施工。成孔施工前应在场地中挖好排水沟及循环浆池,以避免因泥浆随意排放而影响施工。 

基坑护栏
  2、控制水泥浆水灰比 
  应预先计算好每拌所需水量在搅拌桶中的高度控制进水量,施工时或用尺量、或做记号。质检员应预先绘制灰浆水灰比与比重标准关系曲线。以拌制好的水泥浆比重找出对应水灰比。相邻桩施工间隔时间不宜超过一天,否则必须放慢搅速度,保证搭接质量,施工过程中由于某种原因,产生施工冷缝,需要进行冷缝处理。施工过程中产生的涌土,用挖土机及时清理干净。根据设计要求和有关技术资料规定,三轴搅拌桩机下沉速度应控制在0.5-0.9m/min,搅拌提升速度应控制在0.9-1.1m/min以内,并保持匀速下沉与匀速提升。搅拌提升进不应使孔内产生负压造成周边地基沉降。施工第一批桩(不少于5根)必须确定实际施工水泥投放量、浆液水灰比、浆液泵送时间和搅拌下沉及提升时间、桩长及垂直度控制方法,以便确定三轴搅拌桩的正常施工控制标准。 
(The amount of water needed for each mixing should be calculated in advance to control the water intake at the height of the mixing barrel, and be measured or marked during construction. The quality inspector should draw the relationship curve between the water cement ratio and the specific gravity standard in advance. Find the corresponding water cement ratio by mixing the proportion of cement slurry. The construction interval of adjacent piles should not exceed one day. Otherwise, the mixing speed must be slowed down to ensure the quality of overlapping. In the construction process, due to some reasons, the construction cold cracks need to be treated. The soil generated during construction is cleaned up in time by excavators. According to the design requirements and relevant technical data, the subsidence speed of the three-axis mixing pile machine should be controlled within 0.5-0.9 m/min, the mixing and lifting speed should be controlled within 0.9-1.1 m/min, and the uniform subsidence and lifting speed should be maintained. Mixing and lifting shall not cause negative pressure in the hole to cause settlement of the surrounding foundation. The first batch of piles (not less than 5 piles) must be determined in order to determine the normal construction control standard of triaxial mixing piles.)
  3、地下连续墙施工 
  车站基坑围护结构采用C30混凝土,地下连续墙不仅在施工初期起围护作用,在施工后期还与内衬墙复合形成永久的受力结构。根据现场实际情况,思源道站车站围护结构施工首先从北端头井开始,首开幅设在转角处。在每一幅墙的施工过程中,控制好导墙施工、成槽施工、清浆、钢筋笼制作安装、水下混凝土浇筑等各道工序,完成多幅后进行顶圈梁施工。 
  (1)导墙采用C20钢筋混凝土,配筋为φ12@200,做成“┓┏”形现浇钢筋砼结构,内侧净宽度比连续墙宽40mm。根据地质条件,泥浆采用膨润土泥浆,针对松散层及砂砾层的透水性及稳定情况,制定泥浆配合比,在施工中根据试验槽段及实际情况再适当调整。在地下连续墙施工过程中,泥浆要与地下水、砂、土、混凝土接触,膨润土、掺合料等成分会有所消耗,且混入一些主渣和电解质离子等,使泥浆受到污染而质量恶化。被污染恶化的泥浆,经过处理后仍可重复使用。 
  (2)成槽施工为地连墙施工阶段的关键工序。成槽施工每个施工段采用一台液压抓斗连续墙槽壁机施工成槽机采用3抓成槽,先挖两端,后挖中间,成槽机就位时要严格找平,施工过程中每隔3抓左右将抓斗旋转180°,以保证墙体的垂直度,地连墙上部17~19.2m为基坑外露部分,为保证表面的平整度、垂直度,应在开槽前17~19.2m时,控制挖土的速度,保证其成槽的质量。 
  (3)钢筋笼根据地下连续墙墙体配筋图和单元槽段的划分来制作。现场设置钢筋笼加工平台,平台采用钢筋混凝土砌筑,具有足够的刚度、稳定性和水平性。钢筋加工符合设计图纸和施工规范要求,钢筋加工按以下顺序:先铺设横筋,再铺设纵向筋,并焊接牢固,焊接底层保护垫块,然后焊接桁架,再焊接上层纵向筋中间联结筋和面层横向筋,然后焊接拉筋、锁边筋,吊筋,最后焊接预埋件(同时焊接中间预埋件定位水平筋)及保护垫块。钢筋笼采用整体一次吊装。钢筋笼起吊采用160t履带吊作为主吊,70t履带吊做副吊(行车路线离槽边不小于3.5m),直立后由160t吊车吊入槽内。钢筋笼进入槽内时,吊点中心必须对准槽段中心,然后徐徐下降,不得高起猛落,强行放入,并在导墙上严格控制下放位置,确保预埋件(预埋钢板)位置准确。此时必须注意不要使起重臂摆动或其它影响而使钢筋笼产生横向摆动,以免造成槽壁坍塌。钢筋笼入槽后,检查其顶端标高是否符合设计要求,然后用槽钢卡住吊筋,横担于导墙上,防止钢筋笼下沉,并用四组(8根)φ50钢管分别插入锚固筋上,与灌注架焊接,防止上浮。如果钢筋笼不能顺利插入槽内,应该重新吊出,待查明原因后加以解决,如果需要则在修槽之后再吊放。严禁将钢筋笼作自由落体状强行插入基槽,否则会引起钢筋笼变形或使槽壁坍塌,产生大量槽底沉渣。 
  (4)混凝土采用导管法灌注,导管直径选用250mm,每节长3m,并配备lm、1.5m的短管以调整长度,各节导管之间尽量采用丝扣连接,并且连接处应加设橡胶垫圈密封,以防混凝土灌注时导管漏水,导管间距控制为3m以下,并且导管尽量靠近接头。根据槽段宽度及形状设置2~3套导管,导管距槽端头不大于1.1m。砼采用商品砼,设计强度为C30,坍落度控制在18~22cm。灌注砼前,先下放导管,导管底端距槽底的距离为30~50cm之间,导管距槽段两侧端部不超过1.5m,导管在钢筋笼内要上下活动顺畅,灌注前利用导管进行泵吸反循环二次清底换浆,并在槽口上设置挡板,以免砼落入槽内而污染泥浆。 
(
(1)dǎo qiáng cǎi yòng C20gāng jīn hún níng tǔ ,pèi jīn wéi φ12@200,zuò chéng “┓┏”xíng xiàn jiāo gāng jīn tóng jié gòu ,nèi cè jìng kuān dù bǐ lián xù qiáng kuān 40mm。gēn jù dì zhì tiáo jiàn ,ní jiāng cǎi yòng péng rùn tǔ ní jiāng ,zhēn duì sōng sàn céng jí shā lì céng de tòu shuǐ xìng jí wěn dìng qíng kuàng ,zhì dìng ní jiāng pèi hé bǐ ,zài shī gōng zhōng gēn jù shì yàn cáo duàn jí shí jì qíng kuàng zài shì dāng diào zhěng 。zài dì xià lián xù qiáng shī gōng guò chéng zhōng ,ní jiāng yào yǔ dì xià shuǐ 、shā 、tǔ 、hún níng tǔ jiē chù ,péng rùn tǔ 、chān hé liào děng chéng fèn huì yǒu suǒ xiāo hào ,qiě hún rù yī xiē zhǔ zhā hé diàn jiě zhì lí zǐ děng ,shǐ ní jiāng shòu dào wū rǎn ér zhì liàng è huà 。bèi wū rǎn è huà de ní jiāng ,jīng guò chù lǐ hòu réng kě zhòng fù shǐ yòng 。 
  (2)chéng cáo shī gōng wéi dì lián qiáng shī gōng jiē duàn de guān jiàn gōng xù 。chéng cáo shī gōng měi gè shī gōng duàn cǎi yòng yī tái yè yā zhuā dòu lián xù qiáng cáo bì jī shī gōng chéng cáo jī cǎi yòng 3zhuā chéng cáo ,xiān wā liǎng duān ,hòu wā zhōng jiān ,chéng cáo jī jiù wèi shí yào yán gé zhǎo píng ,shī gōng guò chéng zhōng měi gé 3zhuā zuǒ yòu jiāng zhuā dòu xuán zhuǎn 180°,yǐ bǎo zhèng qiáng tǐ de chuí zhí dù ,dì lián qiáng shàng bù 17~19.2mwéi jī kēng wài lù bù fèn ,wéi bǎo zhèng biǎo miàn de píng zhěng dù 、chuí zhí dù ,yīng zài kāi cáo qián 17~19.2mshí ,kòng zhì wā tǔ de sù dù ,bǎo zhèng qí chéng cáo de zhì liàng 。 
  (3)gāng jīn lóng gēn jù dì xià lián xù qiáng qiáng tǐ pèi jīn tú hé dān yuán cáo duàn de huá fèn lái zhì zuò 。xiàn chǎng shè zhì gāng jīn lóng jiā gōng píng tái ,píng tái cǎi yòng gāng jīn hún níng tǔ qì zhù ,jù yǒu zú gòu de gāng dù 、wěn dìng xìng hé shuǐ píng xìng 。gāng jīn jiā gōng fú hé shè jì tú zhǐ hé shī gōng guī fàn yào qiú ,gāng jīn jiā gōng àn yǐ xià shùn xù :xiān pù shè héng jīn ,zài pù shè zòng xiàng jīn ,bìng hàn jiē láo gù ,hàn jiē dǐ céng bǎo hù diàn kuài ,rán hòu hàn jiē héng jià ,zài hàn jiē shàng céng zòng xiàng jīn zhōng jiān lián jié jīn hé miàn céng héng xiàng jīn ,rán hòu hàn jiē lā jīn 、suǒ biān jīn ,diào jīn ,zuì hòu hàn jiē yù mái jiàn (tóng shí hàn jiē zhōng jiān yù mái jiàn dìng wèi shuǐ píng jīn )jí bǎo hù diàn kuài 。gāng jīn lóng cǎi yòng zhěng tǐ yī cì diào zhuāng 。gāng jīn lóng qǐ diào cǎi yòng 160tlǚ dài diào zuò wéi zhǔ diào ,70tlǚ dài diào zuò fù diào (háng chē lù xiàn lí cáo biān bú xiǎo yú 3.5m),zhí lì hòu yóu 160tdiào chē diào rù cáo nèi 。gāng jīn lóng jìn rù cáo nèi shí ,diào diǎn zhōng xīn bì xū duì zhǔn cáo duàn zhōng xīn ,rán hòu xú xú xià jiàng ,bú dé gāo qǐ měng luò ,qiáng háng fàng rù ,bìng zài dǎo qiáng shàng yán gé kòng zhì xià fàng wèi zhì ,què bǎo yù mái jiàn (yù mái gāng bǎn )wèi zhì zhǔn què 。cǐ shí bì xū zhù yì bú yào shǐ qǐ zhòng bì bǎi dòng huò qí tā yǐng xiǎng ér shǐ gāng jīn lóng chǎn shēng héng xiàng bǎi dòng ,yǐ miǎn zào chéng cáo bì tān tā 。gāng jīn lóng rù cáo hòu ,jiǎn chá qí dǐng duān biāo gāo shì fǒu fú hé shè jì yào qiú ,rán hòu yòng cáo gāng kǎ zhù diào jīn ,héng dān yú dǎo qiáng shàng ,fáng zhǐ gāng jīn lóng xià chén ,bìng yòng sì zǔ (8gēn )φ50gāng guǎn fèn bié chā rù máo gù jīn shàng ,yǔ guàn zhù jià hàn jiē ,fáng zhǐ shàng fú 。rú guǒ gāng jīn lóng bú néng shùn lì chā rù cáo nèi ,yīng gāi zhòng xīn diào chū ,dài chá míng yuán yīn hòu jiā yǐ jiě jué ,rú guǒ xū yào zé zài xiū cáo zhī hòu zài diào fàng 。yán jìn jiāng gāng jīn lóng zuò zì yóu luò tǐ zhuàng qiáng háng chā rù jī cáo ,fǒu zé huì yǐn qǐ gāng jīn lóng biàn xíng huò shǐ cáo bì tān tā ,chǎn shēng dà liàng cáo dǐ chén zhā 。 
  (4)hún níng tǔ cǎi yòng dǎo guǎn fǎ guàn zhù ,dǎo guǎn zhí jìng xuǎn yòng 250mm,měi jiē zhǎng 3m,bìng pèi bèi lm、1.5mde duǎn guǎn yǐ diào zhěng zhǎng dù ,gè jiē dǎo guǎn zhī jiān jìn liàng cǎi yòng sī kòu lián jiē ,bìng qiě lián jiē chù yīng jiā shè xiàng jiāo diàn quān mì fēng ,yǐ fáng hún níng tǔ guàn zhù shí dǎo guǎn lòu shuǐ ,dǎo guǎn jiān jù kòng zhì wéi 3myǐ xià ,bìng qiě dǎo guǎn jìn liàng kào jìn jiē tóu 。gēn jù cáo duàn kuān dù jí xíng zhuàng shè zhì 2~3tào dǎo guǎn ,dǎo guǎn jù cáo duān tóu bú dà yú 1.1m。tóng cǎi yòng shāng pǐn tóng ,shè jì qiáng dù wéi C30,tān luò dù kòng zhì zài 18~22cm。guàn zhù tóng qián ,xiān xià fàng dǎo guǎn ,dǎo guǎn dǐ duān jù cáo dǐ de jù lí wéi 30~50cmzhī jiān ,dǎo guǎn jù cáo duàn liǎng cè duān bù bú chāo guò 1.5m,dǎo guǎn zài gāng jīn lóng nèi yào shàng xià huó dòng shùn chàng ,guàn zhù qián lì yòng dǎo guǎn jìn háng bèng xī fǎn xún huán èr cì qīng dǐ huàn jiāng ,bìng zài cáo kǒu shàng shè zhì dǎng bǎn ,yǐ miǎn tóng luò rù cáo nèi ér wū rǎn ní jiāng 。 )
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